Caves and the Surrounding Archaeological Assemblages in Talakona Region, Andhra Pradesh

Dr. T. Babji Reddy

Senior Academic Fellow, Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR), New Delhi. Email:

   Volume 2, Number 3, 2018 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.23.v2n305


Caves have been using as natural dwellings from prehistoric times to the present. It is known fact that the worldwide Archaeologists and Anthropologists were collected the most important cultural and physical remains of early human beings from the caves. The present paper discusses about the caves and its surrounding archaeological assemblages found inside and around the caves based on the explorations conducted in Talakona forest region (a part in Tirumala/Seshachalam hills) in Andhra Pradesh. Talakona region have several evidences of prehistoric and proto-historic period. The available evidences such as Palaeolithic stone tools (hand axes, cleavers, flakes etc.), rock art, megalithic burials and historic temples suggest that this region has great continuity from the past. The present paper discusses the human continuity based on the archaeological evidences available from the caves and its surrounding environment.

Keywords: Caves, Dolmens, Rock art, inscriptions

Reflections on Modernism in Bangladesh and the abstract artist Kazi Ghiyasuddin

Archishman Sarker

PhD research scholar at the School of Arts and Aesthetics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Email:

   Volume 2, Number 3, 2018 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.23.v2n304


This paper is an analysis and anamnesis of the art of the Bangladeshi abstract painter Kazi Ghiyasuddin This paper also explores Bangladeshi Modernism- as an artistic movement in close dialogue with Modernist art emerging from the rest of Bengal and the world at the point of emergence of an international Bangladeshi identity. A close study of his art leads to a contemplation on the syncretism of nature and art (culture) and a manifestation of such through the form of the abstract; while situating the ‘artist’ at an intersection of lived experiences, artistic perception and politics of expression.

Keywords: Modernism, Modernism in Bangladesh, Abstract art, Modernism in South Asia, Art and Nature.

Embossment and its significance approach to practicing Contemporary Art

Tikendra Kumar Sahu

Assistant Professor, Department of Fine Arts, Amity University, Noida. Email:

   Volume 2, Number 3, 2018 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.23.v2n303


Embossing is the art term of any process – e.g. casting, chasing, stamping, carving or molding- designed to make a pattern or figurative composition stand out in relief. The present paper discusses the contemporary practices of embossing by different Indian artists under three broad categories: Pressing, Carving and Punching. This will discuss the artworks of the artists for exploring the motivational aspects and for examining the development of visual language. All the primary case studies of were evidently researched by having a direct observation of their practices through interviews and by examining primary and secondary textual sources moderated by their artistic process as the contemporary modernist approaches.

Keywords: Contemporary art, Embossment, Embossing art practices, Contemporary embossment, Indian Art

Mystery of the Similarities of Indian, European and British Megaliths: a Consideration of Possible Influences in Antiquity

Subhashis Das

Independent Researcher on Megaliths, Ancient Races, Folklores and Tribalsim. Email:

   Volume 2, Number 3, 2018 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.23.v2n302


India is a treasure house of a wide variety of megaliths created by separate tribes at different time zones. Surprisingly among this colossal hoard of megaliths across the large landmass of India there are many which have their identical in Europe and Britain. The paper investigates these similarities in architectures of a few megaliths in the lands of Europe, Britain and India. These similarities are indeed a mystery. Why are so many megalithic monuments in these lands identical or nearly so? Could it be that it was the same people who created them or may be these are result of contacts between the people of these countries in some unknown antiquity?

The paper studies the causes that may have given rise to these similar megaliths in India, Britain and Europe. In the process it delves into the oral traditions of a few megalith making proto-austroloid Kolarian Mundari tribes of India who recount sagas of their traversing for centuries during much ancient times in many far-off countries which many tribal gurus presume to be various regions of ancient Europe. This may sound preposterous but many European vernaculars as German, Flemish, Greek, Irish and English strangely consist of many words which are indeed Mundari in origin. Many human and place names in Europe shows similarity with austric Mundari words. The paper also discloses that several Mundari tribes in India and many European countries use exactly the same word for the same object. In addition, particular discussion centres on the meanings of the Mundari sasandiri and the folklore place-name Sasanbeda.

All these indubitably advocate that such resemblances are not upshot of a meagre happenstance but has materialised as a consequence of a contact subsequent to the arrival of these tribes in Europe perhaps during the European Neolithic Era. This proposes that the tribal folklores of the proto-Australoid Kolarian Mundari tribes is possibly inherently correct and therefore deserve in-depth study. These types of Indian megaliths that are similar to that of Europe and Britain either remain to be dated or have been found to be of much later date than their western counterparts.

Key Words: Dolmen, Indian megaliths, birdiri, hargarhi, Kolarian, Mundari, sasan, sarsen.

Are there Bad Artworks? Some Views on the Negative Evaluations of Art

Eleni Gemtou

Department of Philosophy and History of Science. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens/Greece. Email:

   Volume 2, Number 3, 2018 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.23.v2n301


The general purpose of this paper is to investigate the character of negative evaluations of art through two basic questions, which are to be answered by a historic and a cognitive/structuralistic approach, retrospectively: Do negative evaluations of art have an absolute and permanent character and can negative evaluations block the cognitive process of the creation of aesthetic experience? The definitions of artworks both as value-carriers and as the means of renewing creative and philosophic thinking are used as the basis of an argumentation that reaches the conclusion that negative evaluations of artworks are only temporary as they may change with the passage of time. Moreover, cultivated perceivers of bad artworks may gain deep aesthetic experience because of their effort to justify their negative evaluations, in which they are reminded of the principles of genuine art, due to our structuralistic thinking process based on binary opposites.

 Keywords: Art Evaluation, Structuralism, Binary Oppositions, Clement Greenberg

The Chitrakarini Temple of Bhubaneswar (Odisha, India): An Investigative Field Study

Santosh Kumar Jha

Senior Faculty, Leather Goods and Accessories Design Department, Footwear Design and Development Institute, Noida, India. Email:

  Volume 2, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.21.v2n105


Heritage architectural and sculptural expressions are self-explanatory documents, which carries its legacy along with the wheel of time. The Chitrakarini temple of Bhubaneswar is one among such precious monuments, where the then socio-culture knowledge and ideological hemispheres had taken its materialistic identity, through precisely crafted sculptural panoramic expressions. Material wise this temple-structure could be categorized as an example of stone architecture; and is located in the Old Town area of Bhubaneswar, which is the state capital city of Odisha state, India. Goddess Chitrakarini is being worshipped in this temple- as major deity. As the name “Chitrakarini” reflects, this is a temple of “Female Painter” or “Paintress of Life”- and is world’s only known temple, which is dedicated to the goddess “Chitrakarini”- who is the divine sub-form of Goddess Saraswati– the deity of Knowledge in Hinduism. Therefore goddess Chitrakarini, establishes her identity as the goddess of Creative Intellectual Activities. This temple was built during CE 1238 to CE 1264 by one of the Vaishnav king of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty, Narasingh Dev-1. According to local religious and socio-cultural beliefs this monument is dedicated to worship and honor women’s contribution towards the creation, management and maintenance of human life-cycles over this planet. But as observed, now a day this heritage monument is detreating due to multifold issues. This temple is declared as ‘Monument Of National Importance’, under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites & Remains Act’ 1958. This paper critically investigates the present overall scenario of this temple.

Keywords: Temple Conservation, Conservation of Architectural Heritage, Conservation of Hindu Heritage Sites, Conservation of Indian Stone Sculptures, Stone Crafts Legacy in India, Hindu Architecture

Institutions of Change: Kathak dance from Courts to Classrooms

Suman Bhagchandani

Ph.D. scholar of English at Jamia Milia University, Delhi. Orcid: 0000-0001-9525-2697. Email:

  Volume 2, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.21.v2n104


This paper is a study of the progress of Kathak from the erstwhile courtesan culture to the contemporary classroom, structured practice. It aims to highlight the works of contributors like Nirmala Joshi and Sumitra Charat Ram as the pioneers of institutional Kathak that completely divorced its cultural past in the Mughal courts. Amidst all this cleansisng of Kathak history, Madame Menaka, one of the first female Kathak dancers to perform on the proscenium stage and to legitimise her presence by her association with insitutions of Kathak stands out. Madame Menaka truly deserves more attention in dance history and this paper aims to celebrate her life and works in Kathak. These artists and art entrepreneurs have never come together on the same platform for their contributions in the field of art and culture as they do in this paper. Their works lie scattered in biographies and articles that perform a discrete study on each of them. This paper is therefore an attempt to draw a linear development of Kathak through the works of female art contributors.

Keywords: Kathak, Madame Menaka, Mughal courts, courtesan culture

Portraiture in Indian Miniature Paintings

Sourabh Ghosh

Research Scholar, Chitkara Business School and Sr. Vice President, Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd., Chandigarh, India. E-mail:

  Volume 2, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.21.v2n103


The art of miniature painting in India traces its origin to the Buddhist manuscript Illustrations of the Pala period in Nepal and Eastern part of India in the 8th to 11th century. The Jain manuscripts in Gujrat and Rajasthan, as early as 11th century, also point towards a practice of such illustrations. These manuscripts, apart from portraying religious literature, also covered wide ranging topics such as medicine, astrology, etc. They were profusely illustrated, and were mostly inscribed on palm leaves. Apart from serving as important treatises, they were widely used as gifts during royal marriages and accessions. However, the Mughal Rule in India brought a certain degree of sophistication, refinement and finesse to this form of art. Under successive Mughal Rulers, the art of miniature painting reached its zenith. While Babur and Humayun, who were great lovers of art and literature, could not build proper ateliers during their reigns due to their frequent military campaigns and conflicts, they were responsible for bringing to India two versatile artists, Abdus Samad and Mir Sayed Ali from the Safavid Persian Court-whose works would have significant impact on the art of miniature paintings in the Mughal Courts. Humayun’s successors Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan built some of the most significant ateliers under their rules, and some of the preeminent miniature artists like Basavan, Manohar, Bichitar, Ustad Mansur, Balchand and Murad flourished under their patronage. Some very significant works like Baburnama, Akbarnama, Razamnama, etc. were also commissioned by the early Mughal Emperors.  With the decline of the Mughal Empire, the miniature painting scene shifted to the Rajput Courts in Rajasthan and the Hill States in Northern India. Various important Schools of painting –like the Mewar, Marwar, Jaipur, Hadoti, Kangra, Basholi, and Garhwal – Schools, to name a few, started flourishing under their respective rulers. While the Mughal influence still prevailed, yet each school had its own distinctive characteristic and feature. The subjects of these paintings and manuscripts ranged from religious literature, court scenes, royal processions, flora and fauna, textiles, jewelry to elaborate equestrian and hunting scenes. However, the most riveting and captivating depictions were in the form of elaborate and brilliant  portraits of the rulers, their nobles and courtiers, which not only throw light on their magnificent reigns, but also open a window to the culture, tradition and practices of those times. This essay makes an attempt to study the fine art of portraiture in miniature paintings in the various Mughal, Provincial and Rajput Courts to bring out their historical and cultural significance.

Key Words: Miniature Painting, Mughal School, Rajput School, Portraits, Hill Schools

‘Spatial Narratives’ in Architecture: Designing a Dance Institute for the Nomadic Kalbelia community at Pushkar, Rajasthan, in India

Namrata Singh & Maulik Hajarnis

Faculty of Architecture, Parul University, Waghodia, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

E Mail ID:

  Volume 2, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.21.v2n102


The paper begins with an overview of the Storytelling potential of Architecture. It tells how the experiential process of moving through spaces and decoding the messages embodied in Architecture has the potential to nourish the perceiver spiritually and emotionally, going beyond the physical traits of the structure and imbibed functions. To understand how a designer can imbibe a narrative while designing a project, the paper then describes the design process of an academic project – A Dance institute for the Kalbelia community at Pushkar, Rajasthan, in India. The description ends with the experiential journey of the perceiver to decode the spatial narratives encoded by the conceiver while conceiving the project; supplemented with the drawings of the design proposal and the inferences.

Keywords: Spatial narratives, Storytelling, Architecture, Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage, Kalbelia

African Inspired Bridal Shower Dress

Chimbindi Felisia1, Mangwiro Kudzai2, Dandira Tarirai3, Gwisai Josline4

1Lecturer Chinhoyi University of Technology. Email:

2Fashion Designer

3Lecturer Chinhoyi University of Technology

4Lecturer Chinhoyi University of Technology

  Volume 2, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.21.v2n101


The study sought to design, construct and exhibit a collection of bridal shower dress emphasizing the roles played by a traditional African vaShona wife, inspired by kitchen utensils and artifacts used in the kitchen. Ethnographic methods were used to as the aim of the research was to give cultural interpretations on roles played by traditional vaShona wife and utensils used to cook food. Participant observations and interviews were used to assess the level of acceptance and appreciation of designs of bridal shower dress designs and come up with improvement. Findings revealed that bridal shower wear inspired by traditional kitchen utensils and artifacts is highly accepted. The youths appreciated the intergenerational transfer of culture and traditions. It was recommended that designers may incorporate cultural features on wedding gowns for brides and on grooms’ wear to depict cultural beliefs and values. Further research is required on groom’s wear to depict cultural values among the various cultural groups in Zimbabwe that include Shangani, Ndau, Ndebele and others.

 Keywords: Bridal shower, dress, bride, exhibition