Manifestation of Indian Miniature Style in the Paintings of Nicholas Roerich

Jyoti Saini & Ila Gupta

Department of Humanities and Social Science, Department of Architecture and Planning
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Uttarakhand, India. Email ids:,

   Volume 1, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.v1n1.v1n106


India is symbolized by the diversity of its art and culture from epochs. From a global perspective, acculturation could be a topic of present day study for visual artists and other cultural practitioners. Cultural assimilation has been a much debated issue in respect of Indian paintings. Nowadays or even in the past, artists have been coming to India to be enamored by its natural beauty, culture, religious beliefs and philosophy, ceremonies and many more practices. Among these artists, one key figure from the last centenary was the Russian maverick- Nicholas Roerich, who was very much influenced by Indian cultural ethos. Roerich has done exercise with Indian theme in western techniques and depicted the several sights of beauty of nature and the figures in Indian style. Roerich has contributed significantly to Indian modern paintings during art- revivalism. The significance of portrayal of Indian style has been defined on theoretical perception of renowned art critics. Further, Indian miniature stylistic forms have been pointed out through handmade drawings with the help of Photoshop software as a tool. Thus, this paper is an attempt to critically evaluate the influence of Indian culture especially Hindu culture on the works of Nicholas Roerich.

 Keywords: Nicholas Roerich, cultural assimilation, Indian art, Hindu religion

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Terracotta Temples of Bengal: A Culmination of Pre-existing Architectural Styles

Sudeshna Guha1 & Dr. Abir Bandyopadhyay2

1B. Arch Student, National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. Email:

2Professor, Department of Architecture, National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. Email:

Volume 1, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.v1n1.v1n105


Three major developments in religious architecture were seen in three different eras of Bengal’s history – evolution of Nagara style temples which were influenced by the Orissan Rekha deuls, followed by the developments of Islamic Architecture through mosques and tombs, and lastly, the generation of Terracotta Temples. The Terracotta Temples of Bengal, famous for the use of Terracotta Plaques for surface decoration, had developed a unique style of architecture, quite distinct from the major styles of temple architecture that was prevailing in India. This paper intends to find out which architectural features of the Terracotta Temples got influenced and how they got influenced from the prevailing architectural styles.

 Keywords: Terracotta Temples, influence, architectural features, Islamic architecture, Pre-Islamic architecture.

Literary Places, Tourism and the Cultural Heritage Experience –the Case of Kumbakoanm

K. Selvakumar1 & Dr. S.Thangaraju2

1Assistant Professor, Army Institute of Hotel Management& Catering Technology,  Bangalore – 560077. Email:

2Associate Professor, Department of Indian Culture and Tourism, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Kumbakonam ,Tamilnadu.

 Volume 1, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.v1n1.v1n104


Purpose –Literary locations may be defined in diverse methods, however principally they gather that means from links with writers and the settings of their novels. Such locations magnetize vacationers and form part of the landscape of heritage tourism. Numerous key standards regarding heritage are applicable to literary places, and empirical research sanction a extra preponderant information in their pertinence how applicable problems of authenticity and conservation are to this revel in on area . Recognising the articulated aims, we explore how a cultural festival, and more specifically contemporary art, may positively influence the residents and visitors. paper examines, whether the city educate visitors about Indigenous cultures of the Tamils. The paper argues Further, aspects of infrastructure and hygiene are also reviewed.

Methodology -The research study includes both the primary and secondary data sources. The major data and information pertaining to the research study have been accumulated from the primary sources. The main sources of primary data were used is content and descriptive analyses of archival documents, contemporary  literary works and inscriptions, in the Tamil language related to the social history of Tamils in classical period, personal visits to Kumbakonam and their observation.

Findings – The paper concludes by arguing that festivals’ engagement with tourism needs to be carefully managed in the interests of promoting the socially sustaining function of festivals and of encouraging sustainable approaches to tourism development.

Originality/value –The paper explores spirituality and tourism in the context of kumabkonam city where there is very little formal research in this area. The paper serves as a stepping stone towards future research on overlooked religious site and their management

Keywords:  Tourism, Culture, heritage ,Religion, Temple, Mahamagam

Damian Hirst’s Exhibition at Palazzo Grassi in Venice

Report by VEDITU: collettivo di ricerca sul contemporaneo (

 Volume 1, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

The scientists, from Galileo to Newton, interested in arts and history, always have had some collections where there was everything; from the Unicorn’s bone to the sphere for premonitions, the potions to feel good to the alchemical texts.

The exhibition of Damian Hirst, which opened Thursday at Palazzo Grassi and Punta della Dogana, is in this framework, in the mass of a thousand things that any intellectual retained, in the times when it was thought that culture was universal, that each of us, individually, could collect all the knowledge the world was offering.

A huge amount, of uneven objects, that have little to do with each other.

Damien Hirst, the father of the young British artist, after years puts himself out there with this giant exhibition completely changing himself and his work. There are no provocations, animals, drugs, colored dots. In this sense, the bet is high, because it takes the scene abandoning what made him famous, refusing to repeat itself, if not for the wealth. It seems that like the Gagosian of 20 years ago, even the good Pinault has provided unlimited funds.

The story is simple: in 2008 it was discovered that the wreck of a ship sank off the east coast of Africa, belonged to Cif Amotan II, a freedman of Antioch who lived between I and II century AD. He freed himself from slavery and gathered an immense fortune among art works, jewelry, antiques, and spoils of war. This treasure was loaded onto his ship to be brought to a temple, but it never arrived at its destination. Then the recent discovery, the re-emergence of encrusted artifacts from the sea, sometimes very damaged. That this story is a complete fabrication is unimportant. The story holds in the exhibition beyond the inconsistencies.

So triune works: sculptures rebuilt as new, falsely sculptures subjected to spend time on the seabed, video or picture of their recovery. Here, size matters: from tiny gold sculptures to the 18 meters of the giant’s height that fills the courtyard of Palazzo Grassi (Demon with Bowl). Also the materials: gold, silver, bronze, black and white granite.

The challenge is to create, provide the public with a story, a fairy tale. Herein will lie the success or failure of this exhibition. Beyond the technical expertise, the cost of production of this enormity similar to a collection, the impression that is created is truly to enter in a strange archaeological museum. And this also serves the ornaments, such as the caskets with the collections of fake rare shells, which are a fall in the tension of the exhibition. They certainly will not be sold at a high price, but they offset, creating the image of the museum. Basically in any discovery there can be the wonderful, but also the tool, the consumer good, the shell.

The materials are conventional ones; the works have an aspect that can be ambiguously connected to experiences already lived. We are surprised for the size of the caskets, in a much elaborated fictional language that makes this surplus of fantastic syncretism, between myth and cartoon, surrealism and jewel, gods and monsters in a credible collection of the wonders of an invented world. So much so that a toy, a robot, put into glass case, all of gold, with its excellent caption, can certainly represent a deity and the incredible abilities in aging of works with rust, sponges, algae and shells, just as fake, which makes it plausible marine finds.

The fairy tales, the stories, at the dawn of humanity was needed to  recognize, ritualize and defeat the real and imaginary dangers, to reconnect with nature. Even with the advent of the novel, the narrative has maintained, according W.Benjamin, its function: “on the one hand the meaning of life, the other the moral of the story”. Damien offers this in the exhibition, a fairy tale and a game, that ridiscute a large part of contemporary art that instead brings to the concept, to the minimalism of the artistic gesture and of the space that contains it. Here is the provocation of the treasures from the wreck of the unbelievable, the real controversial point and the novelty. Certainly coming out of this experience, the public cannot say, “This I could do it myself.”  It may pleasure at the Market?

Images: Photographed by Prudence Cuming Associates © Damien Hirst and Science Ltd. All rights reserved, DACS/SIAE 2017 & Photographed by Christoph Gerigk © Damien Hirst and Science Ltd. All rights reserved, DACS/SIAE 2017

Call for Papers

The Chitrolekha Journal on Art and Design is a scholarly platform for discussions on the evolution and intercategorial development of art and design. The journal explores arts both as a mode of signaling as well as being in an ontological sense. The mystery of the first arts of our ancestors intrigues us today, from a scientific as much as an aesthetic perspective. Similarly the future of arts leads us to think of things quite unknown to us. The scope of the journal therefore, will be open-ended so as to be able to incorporate and address emerging areas in human arts and sciences. Research papers on any of the following broad areas can be submitted:

  • History and Prehistory of Art
  • Visual Studies
  • Performance Arts
  • Intersections
  • Art and Religion
  • Art and Technology
  • Design and Culture
  • Art, Ecology, Environment
  • Contemporary Art
  • Commercial design aesthetics
  • Textiles, Fashion, Perishable Arts
  • Handicrafts and Heritage Preservation & Management

Publication Schedule: We follow Continuous Publication model and we start publishing articles once the reviews are complete. In every quarter the articles will be clubbed together as an issue under a year (as Volume).

Submission Deadline: There is no deadline as we follow Continuous Publication model. Once the article is reviewed and passed, we will publish it.

Contact: Send your submission the Section Editors at ttm1974 [AT] and/or editor [AT]

Submission Guidelines: Please follow the Guidelines here>>

Craft Study and Product Design Interventions: Soapstone Craft Cluster of Dhakotha Area in Kendujhar District of Odisha, India

Santosh Kumar Jha

Senior Faculty, Leather Goods and Accessories Design Department, Footwear Design and Development Institute, Noida, India. Email:

 Volume 1, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.v1n1.v1n103


This paper covers the dynamics of Soapstone Craft of Dhakotha. Broadly this paper can be divided into two parts, i.e., crafts study part and product design intervention part. The crafts study part includes- research methods, craft introduction, crafts location, craft history, available raw materials, craftsmen and existing skill sets, tools under use, involved craftsmanship processes, existing product ranges etc. On the basis of understandings developed during crafts study, this researcher had explored different market specific and end-user focused product design possibilities. The product design intervention part includes different product design interventions and collections developed by researcher with a holistic approach. There are two different soapstone clusters, with different skill sets, i.e., Soapstone carving cluster and Soapstone ????? ????? or Patthar Kundo cluster; are practicing in same geographical area, so studying and exploring interventions in joint mode was an interesting experience for this researcher. This craft study cum design intervention initiative was conducted during 2010-2011 by this author.

Keywords: Stone Craft of India, Craftsmanship, Crafts & Design, Craft Excellence, Carving Crafts

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A Study on Old Havelis: Lost Heritage of Saharanpur

Aayushi Verma1, Prof. Ila Gupta2

1Department of Humanities and Social Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttrakhand, India, 247667. Email:

2Department of Architecture and Planning, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttrakhand, India, 247667

 Volume 1, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.21659/cjad.v1n1.v1n102


From centuries, our tangible and intangible cultural heritage is considered as an inspiration for life which passes down from one generation to the next. Cultural heritage has its value and place in the heart of society. In cultural heritage, architecture is a showcase of our rich tradition which is our legacy from the past to the present world. Concerning this, Saharanpur is internationally famous for wood carving and closely associated with the socio-economic life of the district. These particular art forms have evolved for centuries as an inseparable and intimate part of its culture. Moreover, the other significant feature of Saharanpur is old havelis (mansions) which were constructed with imperial influence. Old havelis of Saharanpur demonstrate the glimpse of Mughal art and architecture, a characteristic Indo-Islamic-Persian style. Gradually, old havelis of Saharanpur are slowly losing its authenticity due to unawareness of people and their lack of knowledge about the cultural ethos which is attached to it. The art and crafts of these havelis are slowly fading away due to lack of proper infrastructure and initiatives for maintenance. Government has not yet taken enthusiasm for protection against slow demolition of this cultural heritage. Therefore, most of the havelis of this area have torpedoed and rests of the old havelis are on verge of vanishing. Hence, government must take preventive measures and initiatives for restoration and preservation of these havelis. The aim of heritage conservation is to ensure that the cultural significance of heritage places is retained for future generations. This paper makes an effort to create an overview of the architectural heritage buildings (havelis) of Saharanpur and highlights the certain recommendations for safeguarding these old havelis.

Keywords: Haveli, Saharanpur, Cultural Heritage, Conservation

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Inspiration and Evaluation of Paintings of Cezanne

Mani Nandini Sharma & Ila Gupta

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand. India. Email:

  Volume 6, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n3.10

Received December 02, 2016; Accepted December 25, 2016; Published January 26, 2017


Cezanne is a painter who existed in the era of discoveries, there was law of relativity as well as discontinuous travel of light. Despite all the scientificised discoveries and inventions, Cezanne was seeking inspiration from nature. Nature was the sole inspirer of him. Nature, he wanted to tap, the structure of, underneath in his paintings. During the times earlier to mid nineteenth century, symmetry was essential aspect of art as understructure, as in Piero della Francesca’s artworks. During mid nineteenth century art was paving way to new paradigms. Painters display emotion, sentiment, capturing of form, structure, composition with line, color or form to fathom their artistic instincts.  Here in this paper I display the luminous use of color by Cezanne and use of hidden geometry in the painting of Mont Sainte Victoire to elucidate his traits to capture nature to its truest form, asymmetry. In understructure also, this asymmetry is vocal in the pentagon formed at the focal point of painting. Our earth is the worthy example of asymmetry. As nature (earth) is asymmetrical so we find traits of asymmetry in Cezanne’s understructure of painting. The inspiration of the artist lay in nature, so was his treatment of painting.

Keywords: Font Geometry, Symmetry, Asymmetry, Pentagon, Nature


Aesthetic Criticism of “Longing for Love” by Syed Thajudeen

Maryam Khanahmadi& Sabzali Musa Kahn2

1 Cultural Centre, University of Malaya (Malaysia). Email:

2Academy of Malay Studies, Director’s Office, University of Malaya (Malaysia). Email:

  Volume 6, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n3.09

Received November 11, 2016; Accepted December 20, 2016; Published January 26, 2017


With more than thirty years of creative output and a significant body of works to consolidate his reputation, Syed Thajudeen Shaikh Abu Talib, ranks as one of Malaysian’s eminent figurative and lyrical painters. Thajudeen fuses indigenous motifs and symbols with universal ideas and concepts, filtered through his Indian background and circumstance. Syed Thajudeen is one of visual artists, who has been successful in achieving universal appeal in his works by bringing together symbols and motifs in Malaysian with aesthetic and metaphysical elements of Indian’s arts. The theory has been used in this study is Art Appreciation by Harry Samuel Broudy. According to Broudy, Art Appreciation theory has been divided to two parts: 1) Aesthetic perception which is divided in four steps: sensory properties, formal properties, technical properties and expressive properties. 2) Aesthetic criticism which is divided in three steps: historical, re-creative and judicial. In this paper, the focus is on second part of art appreciation theory and in this aim, one master piece of artist’s artworks “Longing for Love” has been selected from five main collections of “Paintings of Love”. This research investigates the visual image in the painting of Syed Thajudeen Shaik Abu Talib; how it has been stirred inside the imagination? How it got stimulated by the figures and forms that are familiar to the transformations inside the artist’s mind? And how it was born again on the canvas?

Keywords: Art appreciation, Aesthetic criticism, Aesthetic perception, Aesthetic judgement


Influence of Sikh lifestyle on Guler miniature paintings

Gurdeep Kaur & Rohita Sharma

Department of Business and fine arts, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.  Email.

  Volume 6, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n3.08

Received December 06, 2016; Accepted December 19, 2016; Published January 26, 2017


The scholars of Indian miniature painting observe the Sikh influences on Pahari miniature painting during Sikh dominancy but in actual, Sikhism and its associations with Hill aristocracy were very deep and prior then Maharaja Ranjit Singh and it should not be disremember that Lahore was one of the glorious art capital of Mughals in Punjab from the days of Emperor Akbar. So Sikhs were also not unaware of artistry and painting. Sikh paintings of 19th century reflect splendid lifestyle and fashion adopted by the Sikhs of Lahore during Sikh dominancy in Punjab Plains which reflected in the court paintings of Guler. But the study also focuses to grasp the Sikh lifestyle before, during and after Maharaja Ranjit Singh and its impact on the Rajput rulers of Guler as the results of Sikh-Rajput associations, which buried in Rajput culture of Guler; and later reflected precisely in paintings of Guler during 18th-19th century. The two different lifestyles under different cultures and ethos merged and influenced each other which reflected in surviving paintings. The study is based on data analysis and explorative method. The study concludes that Sikh lifestyle influenced imprecisely Rajput lifestyle in the beginning but with the expansion of Sikh power, it continuously increased till the last of nineteenth century A.D and emerged and reflected in later court paintings of Guler specifically.

 Key words: Rajput, Guler, Lahore, dress, Sikh influence, lifestyle.