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Future Visions of the Asian City: Scenario Art and the Utopian-Dystopian Spectrum

Nanthawan Kaenkaew1, Wiporn Kanjanakaroon2, Kanang Kantamaturapoj2, Wannipol Mahaarcha2, *Alan Marshall2, Thamakorn Siritorn2, Patranit Srijuntrapun2, and Yanna Somnas2

1Computer Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology,  Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, 10300, Thailand.
2 Environmental Social Sciences Program , Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities,
Mahidol University , Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand.
*Corresponding Author: alan.mar@mahidol.ac.th

Volume 6, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n3.06

Received September 01, 2016;
Accepted October 19, 2016;
Published October 22, 2016.

Abstract

 The futures of four different cities, from around Asia, are outlined via visual means using scenario art and interpretive written support. These four cities are: Dhaka (Bangladesh), Altay (Mongolia), Chongqing (China), and Bangalore (India). Their futures are presented in utopian terms, whereby each city aims to be something of an example of an ‘ideal city’ exhibiting widely-shared, socially-benevolent characteristics along with a marked degree of environmental welfare plus an abundant array of city-transforming mega-technology. In the vein of many previous utopian expressions, we offer some explanation about the way each of these four city arrive at a utopian status (by the start of the 22nd Century) along with a description about the social, technological and economic background that may be present then and there. What emerges from this study are four versions of future Green cities that span the spectrum from ‘ecotopia’ to ‘technotopia’ and from ‘utopia’ to ‘dystopia’. This process ends up outlining, via art and design, some of the choices that many future Asian cities may have to involve themselves with as they work to survive the global environmental crisis and become more livable and more sustainable.

 Keywords: Eco-City, Smart-City, Future, Asia, Utopia, Sustainability

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Craft Documentation of Flexible Brass Craft of Bellaguntha, Ganjam, Odisha, India

Santosh Kumar Jha
School of Leather Goods & Accessories Design, Footwear Design & Development Institute, Noida.
Email: handicraftdesigner@gmail.com

 Volume 6, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n3.05

Received September 15, 2016;
Revised October 15, 2016;
Accepted October 20, 2016;
Published October 22, 2016.

Abstract

Documentation of a traditional craft is important for preserving its identity and to communicate its details to the audience. So, this was important to document different aspects of the flexible brass craft of Bellaguntha. This paper is based over a set of field visits to these craft clusters, located in and around Bellaguntha block area in Ganjam district of Odisha state in India, by this researcher. The purpose of this paper is to prepare a literature database about the flexible brass craft of Bellaguntha, which may help for further research activities by encouraging researchers, who are willing to contribute in the areas of craft studies, traditional knowledge, conservation and preservation of indigenous technologies, design research etc. not only in India, but also in other developing and underdeveloped nations of our beautiful world; where a number of countless traditional crafts and indigenous knowledges are still under waiting and attracting researchers to explore further studies, documentation and publication, so that their glorified existence can be recognized by the world community.

Keywords: Craft and Design Studies, Languishing Traditional Metal Craft, Handicraft Artisan, Craft Studies, Conservation of Indigenous Technical Knowledge, Craft Documentation

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Interface between Dance and Design: Concepts, Dimensions and Illustrations

Ojasi Sukhatankar
Independent Researcher
Email: ojasidances@googlemail.com

 Volume 6, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n3.04

Received October 06, 2016;
Revised October 16, 2016;
Accepted October 19, 2016;
Published October 22, 2016

Abstract

The discipline of dance is not as narrow as one usually tends to suppose. Its interdisciplinary study with other non-dance disciplines such as design can open new insights of creativity for dancers as well as designers. This article explains how both dance and design make use of four core concepts, namely body, space, time, and aesthetics. It also explains how aesthetic experience, its creation, expression and communication made via a dance-item, is analogous with that of a designed artifact. Taking one illustration from each discipline, the article further reveals how both dance and design are a mode of non-verbal communication to viewers. Lastly the article shows that a conscious embedding of design in every dance-pose and dance-movement brings in it one of its most important factors, the aesthetics, without which dance cannot be complete. The author believes that the interdisciplinary research undertaken in this article will enhance theoretical and practical understanding of aesthetics to benefit students, teachers and researchers of both disciplines while they work creatively in their individual fields of work.

Keywords: Aesthetics, Body, Communication, Dance, Design, Expression, Space, Time

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Evolution of Bhumija Shikhara and Distribution of Bhumija Shrines in India

Maulik Hajarnis & Bhagyajit Raval
Faculty of Architecture, Parul University, Waghodia, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
Email: hajarnismaulik@gmail.com

 Volume 6, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n3.03

Received August 26, 2016;
Revised October 15, 2016;
Accepted October 17, 2016;
Published October 22, 2016

Abstract

The present paper begins with a brief on the meaning and essence of a Hindu temple. It talks about the types of classification of the Hindu temples in India, on the basis of its physical attributes. The authors then try to trace the evolution of the Bhumija shikhara chronologically. The paper examines the Bhumija mode with respect to its meaning and references in literature. Finally the paper mentions various Bhumija shrines in various states of the country chronologically. The description ends with maps showing spatial distribution of Bhumija shrines across India and a graph showing state wise Bhumija shrines with respect to their time-line.

 Keywords: Temple, Bhumija, Shikhara, Shrine, India

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A Brief Study of Cupules of a Few Megalithic Sites in Jharkhand

Subhashis Das
Individual Researcher, Hazaribagh, India
Email: subdas.hzb@gmail.com

 Volume 6, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n3.02

Received October 03, 2016
Revised October 20, 2016
Accepted October 20, 2016
Published October 22, 2016

Abstract:

Cupules have been reported from most of the states in the country. Not much is known about them, profound study is relentlessly being carried out by scholars across the country to unravel the mystery of these enigmatic relics of our ancestors. Albeit abundant study of cupules on rock surfaces continues much effort is essential to untangle their obscurity on megaliths. Jharkhand has an abundance of cupmark sites in caves, rock shelters, and rock arts and even on prehistoric megalithic sites that lie strewn all over the state. The paper in question comprises a study of cupules on four megalithic sites in and around Hazaribagh district of the Jharkhand state that are his personal discoveries. No excavation of these sites has been undertaken neither any tool nor flake has been recovered from the sites that could establish the monuments’ and the cupules’ possible age. The paper is not only a study of cupmarks but basing on certain belief systems of the megalithic tribes of Jharkhand it also attempts to seek various possible causes that may have prompted people in hoary antiquity to create these inscrutable indentations. Furthermore the paper also delves into the author’s study how cupule making having gone through a transition still continues in an unrelenting manner among the present day peasants; the surface only having changed.

Keywords: Cupules, Hazaribagh, tribals, Megalith, Daraki Chattan,  Gurua, Napo, Raja Gosain.

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Evolving Medusa

Miguel Ángel Medina[1]

  Volume 6, Number 2, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n2.09

Received on August 28, 2016.
Accepted on August 29, 2016.
Published on August 30, 2016.

 Abstract

This essay describes a proposed framework to better understand the artistic production of Pablo Picasso in the not well known period between two masterpieces, namely, The Three Dancers (1925) and Crucifixion (1930).

Introduction

The overwhelming artistic attraction of Florence was even increased in the turn from 2014 to 2015 with the great exhibition Picasso and Spanish Modernity at the Palazzo Strozzi, showing some ninety works by Picasso and other Spanish artists, ranging from painting to sculpture, drawing, engraving and even film, thanks to the new joint venture of Fondazione Palazzo Strozzi and the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid. This is somehow a natural sequel after the success of the previous exhibition Picasso, Miró, Dalí. Angry Young Men: the birth of Modernity, which took place at the Palazzo Strozzi between March 12th and July 17th, 2011. Eugenio Carmona was co-curator (with Christoph Vitali) of that previous exhibition and is also the curator of Picasso and Spanish Modernity. Eugenio Carmona is full professor of Arts History at the University of Málaga and is currently one of the leading experts on the huge artistic work of Picasso. In his extensive academic work, Professor Carmona has devoted many studies to different aspects of the Picassian artistic work. Although Picasso is one of the artists with more studies, monographies, and articles devoted to his art, most of this bibliography turns around the best known topics, leaving in the shadow most of his production during the second part of his life. Perhaps the most relevant academic contributions made by Eugenio Carmona are related to his efforts to make understandable some dark periods in the artistic production of Picasso. This is the case of his proposed framework to better understand the Piccasian artistic production in the period 1926-1929 through what Professor Carmona calls the iconographies of disquietude (Carmona, 1994, 2002). The aim of this essay is to review this framework and the evolving meanings of these iconographies of disquietude.

[1] Miguel Ángel Medina is a Doctor in Biology and a Graduate in History of Arts currently working as Full Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Málaga (Spain). Email:  medina@uma.es

Balarama of Boro: Unique Specimen of Bengal Sculpture

Sanjay Sen Gupta[1]

 Volume 6, Number 2, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n2.08

Received on July 21, 2016.
Accepted on July 30, 2016.
Published on August 30, 2016.

The folk-tribal tradition of Bengal sculpture, unlike the hieratic genre, has always remained virile without any promotion from the elite class of the society or the royal state. Hence it had to limit itself, while making divine images, mostly within cheaper mediums like clay and natural pigment. Lavish exploration of wood, stone and metal could only be done by the patronized artists of hieratic genre. However, things started to change – suddenly and with immediate effect – following the Islamic invasion in early-thirteenth century AD.

Bakhtiyar Khalji, the Turk military general of Qutb-ud-din Aybak, defeated King Lak?ma?a Sena and founded the Islamic rule at Lakshmanavati or Gaur. The kingdom became known as the Sultanate of Bengal – being ruled at regular intervals from Delhi. Hindu political identity thus got limited to mere Chieftainships and Baronships under the new rulers.

The renewed circumstances changed the royal religion, whose patrons were firmly against all sorts of image-worship. They withdrew and thus stopped the funding of five-hundred odd years – resulting into several works being left in the midway. The highly-skilled artists of P?la-Sena idiom were appointed in carving royal furniture and accessories, while many of them took refuge to the neighboring courts Hindu kings. Worshipping of idols became a secret activity in Bengal and investments were stopped on large-scale quality works. Quick use of clay and natural pigment became the most suitable alternative – even for the making of hieratic deities.

[1] Sanjay Sen Gupta is Assistant Professor (Fine Arts) at School of Fine Arts, Amity University, Kolkata, India. He did PhD (Fine Arts) in Visual Arts from the University of Calcutta (Government College of Art & Craft, Kolkata), India, 2014. Email: sanjaysg1974@gmail.com

The Decline of Varanasi Silk Handloom Cottage Industry: A Case Study of Brocade Weaving Community in Varanasi

Sana Faisal[1]

  Volume 6, Number 2, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n2.07

Received on July 22, 2016.
Accepted on July 30, 2016.
Published on August 29, 2016.

Abstract

The brocade of Varanasi is the distinct workmanship of the weavers where gold and silver thread is practised on fine silk. Kinkhabs, one of the finest known Varanasi brocades, have more Zari visible than silk. The brocades fabrics are woven in workshops identified as Karkhanas. The weavers are known as Karigars that means craftsmen. In earlier days only silver and golden wire were used, but now it is replaced with duplicate. Bold and complicated floral and foliage patterns are also made with the use of Kalga, Bel, Butis, designs. Banarsi sarees are world famous for this reproduction, Banarsi Zari work comes mainly in pure silk (Katan), organza (Kora), georgette and Shattir. Various types of silk, and other materials are used in contemporary times. This paper tried to explored the main problems of the craftsmen and throw light on an individual capacity and learnt about weaving process of brocade produced by artisans with the help of hand, tools, and machines. The chief features of artefacts are utilitarian, aesthetic, creative, cultural, decorative, functional, traditional, religious and socially symbolic and significant.

Keywords: Varanasi Silk, Brocade, Saree, Craft, Varanasi, Zari.

[1] Sana Faisal is a Research Scholar at Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Email: sanafaisal29@yahoo.com

Drawing (on) Politics: Aubrey Collette in Sri Lanka

Samarth Singhal[1]

 Volume 6, Number 2, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n2.06

Received on July 14, 2016.
Accepted on August 1, 2016.
Published on August 4, 2016.

Abstract

Political Cartooning or Graphic Satire does not have a long history and its unique position between art history and newsprint allows it advantages and forces compromises. The use of caricature and the comic makes it more difficult to read such a genre. Moreover, it involves a clear tussle between the ‘text’ and the ‘image’ and its ‘popularity’ can at best be suspect. In such a scenario analysing Collette’s work in Sri Lanka as a socio-political critique is both urgent and worthwhile. Sri Lanka’s history of continuing conflict has prompted many responses, Collette’s being one such response. The question then becomes: Is graphic satire a viable means of critique? Is it always already contained? Why/not? What if the cartoonist himself belongs to a community that is ‘marginalized’ in national discourses? Does this impact the production and reception of his work? It is possible to answer these questions locating Collette in a lineage of theoretical interventions on the comic and the visual, followed by a close reading of his cartoons. Cartoons have only recently acquired attention in the academia as popular visual culture or culture studies and it will repay to ask where the genre can go under the scrutiny of these critical terms.

 Keywords: Cartoon, Visuality, South Asia, Cultural Studies, Caricature

Study on the Prabhavalaya: Aureole of Gods and Goddesses

Prasanna E. Khamitkar[1]

 Volume 6, Number 2, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/chitro.v6n2.05

Received on July 8, 2016.
Accepted on July 26, 2016.
Published on August 4, 2016.

Abstract

Most stand-alone Hindu sculptures of the murtis are supported with a prabhavalaya behind which means a “Luminous circle, an Aureole or a Nimbus ” that is the ornate arch, made of stone, wood or metal that stands just behind and above deity images in temples. To analyze the various images of prabhavalaya the author refers to the content extracted from various resources, sculptures of various temples and the most remarkable sculptures from some museums.  The author will try to make an effort to classify the visual understanding of the prabhavalayas found in various parts of India that forms as a screen to enhance the importance of various god and goddesses.

Key Words: iconography, principle deity, motif, evolution, background, symmetry

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